SPI protocol theory of operation


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In this article you will learn about Serial Peripheral Interface(SPI) protocol, its theory of operation and practical applications. Subscribe to enable complete access to all technical articles, online tests and projects.

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What is SPI protocol?

Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) is an interface bus commonly used to send data between microcontrollers and small peripherals such as shift registers, sensors, and SD cards. It uses separate clock and data lines, along with a slave select line to choose the device to which communication is required.

The SPI bus is a high speed, 3-wire, serial communications protocol (4 if you include slave select pin). Its primiary purpose is to reduce on-PCB wire routing by replacing the traditional parallel bus where more pins are required with a serial interface.

Its only other real competition is the I2C bus which is why you often see these interfaces both available on processors and microcontrollers.

It is intended for transmission of data from a master device to one or more slave devices over short distances and at high speeds (MHz).

How SPI protocol Works?

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